Development and Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? (Jean Piaget Symposia Series)

Development and Learning
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Development and Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? (Jean Piaget Symposia Series) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Development and Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? (Jean Piaget Symposia Series) book. Happy reading Development and Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? (Jean Piaget Symposia Series) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Development and Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? (Jean Piaget Symposia Series) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Development and Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? (Jean Piaget Symposia Series) Pocket Guide.

He presented a social-cognitive theory of personality that emphasizes both learning and cognition as sources of individual differences in personality. Learn more about the development and characteristics of humanistic psychology in this article. This approach is quite broad and applies to the society at large.

Therefore, numerous theorists have tried to explain how people learn, for instance, constructivists, humanists, cognitivists, and behavioralists. Learning Objectives Identify how humanistic psychology, and its related streams of cognitive and evolutionary psychology, have influenced aspects of daily. The humanistic approach to education accepts that the.

Characteristics of adult learners One of the main distinguishing characteristics of adult learners is that they take responsibility for their learning.

Account Options

It is an internal system through which external influences operate mechanistically on action, but individuals exert no motivative, self-reflective, self-reactive, creative or directive influence on the process. Students are encouraged to make choices that range from day-to-day activities to periodically setting future life goals.

During the first half of the twentieth century, the school of thought known as behaviorism Philosophies of Adult Education. Two American psychologists, Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers paved the Humanistic approach - This approach is rooted in the progressive philosophy and child-centered movement.

Graduate modules

Evaluation of the Humanistic Approach. Hi This is some work that I put into my essay last term but figured it could be used for studying purposes also. In this paper, I. However, learning does not have to involve a behavior change. The humanistic approach has its roots in phenomenological and existentialist thought see Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre. Humanistic psychology also assumes that humans have free will personal agency to make their own decisions in life and do not follow the deterministic laws of.

Language should not be separated into pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. Constructivist learning is to make learning "cognitive theory" or "humanistic psy-iThis article is a slightly expanded version of the chology. OB is based on the belief that people have an innate desire to be independent, creative and productive. Rather than concentrating on dysfunction, humanistic psychology strives to help people fulfill their potential and maximize their well-being.

Minnesota State University, Minnesota www. Felt concerns. Humanist approach believes that humans are basically good. Jeanne C. Introduction Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that is widely studied due to the fact that the personality is the determinant of human behaviour and thought Cherry, n. To understand fully what the two theories have to The humanistic perspective on personality deals exclusively with human behavior.

Four humanistic learning environment characteristics i. Social Cognitive Theory Of Learning "Of the many cues that influence beh avior, at any point in time, none is more com mon than the a ctions of others. Non-judgmental Humanistic approach to learning means a process that is inevitable and unique for every individual. In this essay, I will compare and contrast two popular personality theories; namely Freudian and Humanistic Personality Theories.

There was, however, little use of examples from authentic material. Three Maslow believed that basic needs should be met in order to move to a higher level. Claims that people have the ability to shape their own destiny, and this is not driven by biological, instinctive influences. Compare the biological approach to the However, the factors that help attending physicians to maintain their own humanistic attitudes over time are not well understood. The connection between humanistic perspective and personality is relatively modern compared to cognitivist and behaviorist views.

However, while the root of most pioneer and most recent approaches in education is humanistic psychology, there is a lack of a comprehensive humanistic learning theory. Summary: The five basic principles of humanistic education can be summarized asfollows: 1 Students' learning should be self-directed. Once studentsfeel secure, learning becomes easier and more meaningful. Night and Day. These masterpieces bore a great combination of movement, perspective and light.

Characteristics of Humanistic Psychology. The humanistic curriculum also goes a long way toward solving a fundamental problem: that much of what is taught is not learned, and much of what is presented and tested is not assimilated. Garry R. Type your answers and submit them through the form on the home page.

  1. Piaget and the Foundations of Knowledge: Symposium Proceedings by Lynn S. Liben;
  2. Two Cats In The House.
  3. This Day with the Master: 365 Daily Meditations (Discovery Devotional Series).
  4. The Structure of Developmental Theory | SpringerLink.
  5. The Gray Reality!
  6. Concertos Nos. 6 and 7: For Violin and Piano (Kalmus Edition).

What follows is a brief list of traits. Learning should be as the way in which the individual develops his unique way of controlling his environment and attaining his best potential. The social learning approach places great significance on learning with other people, through interpersonal interactions, either face-to-face or in a team.

Humanistic psychology, also known as the humanistic approach, is an approach or perspective of studying psychology. All right. Andragogy makes the following assumptions: 1 Adults need to know why they need to learn something 2 Adults need to learn experientially, 3 Adults approach learning as problem-solving, and 4 Adults learn best when the topic is of immediate value.

But how important it is to be learner centered? Child-centered teaching methods enhance early childhood physical education Excerpted from Early Steps Physical Education Curriculum by Ian Pickup The methods used by educators in early childhood have been the focus of considerable academic debate throughout the last century. Jere Brophy, Professor of Educational Psychology, determined that 7 How should instruction be structured to facilitate learning? In this article, each of these questions is answered from three distinct viewpoints: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism.

Humanism rejected the assumptions of the behaviorist perspective which is characterized as deterministic, focused on reinforcement of stimulus-response behavior and heavily dependent on animal research. Maslow also believed that the Rather humanistic psychologistsstudy human meanings, understandings, and experiences involved in growing,teaching, and learning. Abraham H. Outline the biological approach in psychology. He was arguably one of the most influential psychologists The concept of humanistic approach in education according to Freire is a process of liberation from the oppressive system and raised awareness of the critical processes centered on educators and The affective-humanistic approach is almost exactly the opposite of the cognitive approach.

Note: If you're looking for a free download links of Lippincott Textbook for Nursing Assistants: A Humanistic Approach to Caregiving Pdf, epub, docx and torrent then this site is not for you. Humanistic psychology is the psychological approach which states that the human is the most important thing, more important than the complex, the disorder, the behavior, or the environment. The belief that all individuals in the world share the same basic needs is another prominent example of humanistic theory.

The therapist's role in psychodynamic therapy is authoritative, and they tend to determine what will be talked about during a session. Humanistic psychology emerged during the middle half of the twentieth century in direct response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Psychotherapy-Based Supervision Models As explained above, clinical supervision started as the practice of observing, assisting, and receiving feedback. This instrument evaluates the relationship between student characteristics and education context, their approach to learning tasks and learning results.

Example Development takes place in distinct stages of cognitive development. Humanistic education tends to focus on the felt concerns and interests of the students intertwining with the intellect. One type of psychology that offers a theory of personality is known as humanistic psychology. This humanistic list should not be considered exhaustive. The basic introduction to this theory is that learning will occur by the educator acting as a facilitator, that is by establishing an atmosphere in which learners feel comfortable to consider new ideas and are not Humanistic approach is a system in which human values and interests are the primary importance.

Humanistic Cognitive Behavioral Theory HCBT is an emerging theory based on providing a value-added component to traditional reciprocal determinism. A summary of Humanistic Theories in 's Personality. In politics and social theory, this approach calls for human rights and equality. Keywords subconscious and provides stability to the personality. Humanistic learning theory, when correctly applied in an educational setting, compliments and enhances academic learning, intellectual growth, and the development of knowledge and skills. The Humanistic Approach 3.

Humanistic psychologists believe that human nature includes a natural drive towards personal growth, that humans have the freedom to choose what they do regardless of environmental factors, and humans are mostly conscious beings and are not controlled by unconscious needs and conflicts. This approach strives to help students better undestand them selves and create a positive classroom environment that activates Humanist Learning Theory 3 This is a partial list Learning in Adulthood, , p. There are four different approaches to explain personality, which are psychodynamic, behavioral, biological and humanistic views.

Skinner and A summary of Humanistic Theories in 's Personality. Employees are seen not merely as economic assets valued primarily for their productivity but as people with complex needs and a desire for meaningful and varied daily tasks. According to behaviorist approach, there are conditionings at the base of human behaviours. A hand-ful of significant ideas underlie most reforms of the last 20 years. But before I begin, I have to give you a little caveat.

  • Development Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? (Jean Piaget Symposia Series)?
  • Philippians, Colossians, and Philemon (2 volumes in 1 / ESV Edition): The Fellowship of the Gospel and The Supremacy of Christ.
  • Login using!
  • 1st Edition.
  • Ways of Knowing.

Humanistic and existential approaches share a belief that people have the capacity for self-awareness and choice. This type of psychology holds that morality, ethical values, and good intentions are the driving forces of A learner-centered teaching approach is well known in higher education but has not been fully addressed within counselor education. In contrast, it involves an increased role for word grammar collocation and cognates and text grammar suprasentential features.

In the early s, people began to focus a lot on learners' feelings, and looking for ways to remove some of the barriers to language learning that many learners experienced in the classrooms of the past. Betty: Well, it seems to me that motivation is becoming the scapegoat for all learning failures. Behavioral learning theorists believe that learning has occurred when you can see changes in behavior. An emphasis on personal responsibility — this idea was Carl Rogers.

A key element of this approach is in developing a relationship with the student which is respectful of their auton- Social Reconstruction Curriculum and Technology Education Karen F. The humanistic therapist is encouraged to act in a manner consistent with the themes of unconditional positive regard, empathy, genuineness, and congruence. However, many researchers believe that the self-directed approach to learning discussed by Knowles is applicable in a number of settings. It is a non-technical approach. Both scholars have had an influence on the humanistic psychology and personal centered approach to therapy.

Integrating teaching and learning into clinical practice has been written to follow and extend the theoretical learning in the other two papers. Think of an exception, a situation in which the theory will not work or where another theory might be more effective. The psychodynamic theories of personality are mainly composed of famous theorists such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson and Alfred Adler. Adult learning works best when instruction is task-oriented and problem solving is emphasized. In this nursing approach, there is no formulaic method or process in order to care for Humanistic therapy is based on humanistic psychology, which has disadvantages that include a lack of concrete knowledge regarding specific treatments, an inability to help patients who are suffering from more severe problems and a reliance on generalizations, according to AllPsych.

Dewey, , p. Humanistic Foreign Language The humanistic approach takes into account the cognitive side of the learner, but it also attaches importance to both the affective characteristics and the emotional development of the personality. Also, it ignores the individual characteristics and capacities of learners. A theoretical approach presents a single position regarding the theory and practice of counselling and ther-apy. Humanistic psychology attempts to help individual people achieve their full potential. Humanistic Approach. To move from criticism of the status quo towards a fruitful discourse on alternatives we have developed a three stepped A second approach to the self system is to construe it as mechanically reactive agency.

Northern Illinois University The humanistic approach to counselling therefore encourages the client to learn to understand how negative responses to life events can lead to psychological discomfort. As a leader of humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow approached the study of personality psychology by focusing on subjective experiences and free will. The approach to learning, according to the authors idem: , can be superficial, deep or high per- Cognitive approaches to learning are concerned with how information is processed by learners.

This growth implies i both physical as well as mental development of the learner. George E. Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. For example, you cannot make a graph of love, it's too vague and also unpredictable. They Managing a group of excitable learners is a challenge for any instructor. Whether the change be directed at reducing individual differences, legitimizing individual differences, or enhancing Start studying Key points and basic assumptions of psychological approaches. Eastern philosophy and psychology also play a central role in humanistic psychology, as well as Judeo-Christian philosophies of personalism, as each shares similar concerns about the nature of human existence and consciousness.

Cognitive psychology: attempts to scientifically study information processing in human beings; strong emphasis on neurophysiology. The plan i s based on five proposals that are: Teacher education has to change, but not the way Arthur Combs says it should. Below you'll find three tables which compare five kinds of educational philosophies Liberal, Behaviorist, Progressive, Humanistic, and Radical. Learning comes about as a result of observation Barrett, Describe two ways in which the humanistic approach has been applied in education.

Doyle Watts education. Human nature is viewed as basically good, and humanistic theorists focus on methods that allow fulfillment of potential. Study of Human Political Behaviour: Instead of political institutions, Behavioural Approach stands for the study of human behaviour in politics. The humanistic approach considers the formal of planned curriculum and the informal or hidden curriculum. This type of therapy diverged from the traditional model of the therapist as expert and moved instead toward a nondirective humanistic or behavioristic in content and orientation.

Malcolm Shepherd Knowles — was an American educator well known for the use of the term Andragogy as synonymous to adult education. The Object Relations Theory also belongs to this group of personality theories. It seeks to help people live better lives through practical therapeutic measures. The following approaches can help you to increase self-awareness, and direct you towards finding a greater sense of purpose in life. Humanistic therapy is all about self-exploration.

Humanistic-Existential Psychotherapy. They have not agreed whether the courses should empha size the "hard sciences," indicative of the behavioristic approach, or "life adjustment" and "mental hygiene," considered to reflect the humanistic perspective Engle, Humanistic approach considers human being as the central part of learning by humanistic approach. They emphasize characteristics that are shared by allhuman beings such as love, grief, caring, and self-worth. Student Centered Instruction Pays attention to the role of noncognitive variables in learning: students' needs, emotions, values and self-perceptions.

The purpose is to provide a level of understanding that can promote the power of personal choice and the care and effectiveness of social groups. It places emphasis upon the study of both individual as well as group behaviour in politics. Walz and Dr. A major problem of this theory is that it is vast and focuses on irrational issues. Humanistic psychologist including Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers criticized Freud and other psychologist because they focused on emotionally of a humanistic approach to teaching in the tradition of Carl Rogers A great deal of the theoretical writing about adult education in the s and s drew on humanistic psychology.

Strengths of Humanistic Theory. Founded in , AHP is grounded in the application of the tradition in psychology. It emphasizes the study of the whole person. Yet how to motivate learners in the classroom continues to be one of the most puzzling problems confronting the teacher.

The behaviourist, cognitive and humanist approaches to learning. The humanistic approach places a great deal of emphasis on students' choice and control over the course of their education. Many of the characteristics of these therapies have been incorporated into other therapeutic approaches such as narrative therapy. Attention is a process of concentrating or focusing limited cognitive resources to facilitate perception or mental activity. Thus, attention is a process that is necessary for information processing--the information will not get into memory if it has not been attended to.

In order to perceive, interpret, and understand a message, such as a traffic safety message, children or adults must be able to shift their attention to the appropriate message while filtering out other stimuli called selective attention. Further, since they might be able to devote only part of their attention to the message called divided attention , they must be able to devote enough attention to the appropriate message. They must also be able to focus their attention long enough to receive the entire message called sustained attention.

A lack of capacity in any of these attentional processes could lead to either a misunderstanding of traffic safety messages or a complete failure to receive them. The ability to filter out irrelevant and to focus on appropriate information increases up to about 17 to 20 years of age. The ability to divide one's attention between two information sources is quite poor for people of any age, but improves up to about 11 years of age. The ability to concentrate one's attention for a long period of time increases up to at least 16 years of age, with females having somewhat better ability for sustained attention.

Learning has been defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior or thinking that results from past experiences. An understanding of learning processes is important for those interested in developing messages and programs that attempt to improve safe driving practices. Most traffic safety messages are designed to either change how people think about a traffic safety issue or to change people's safety behaviors. In other words, they are designed to educate people.

Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of learning processes is central in the development of effective traffic safety messages and programs. Three learning processes are particularly relevant: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. The simplest kind of associative learning, classical conditioning, involves the association between reflexive responses such as many emotional responses and a stimulus such as food or a person.

Three main factors influence the chance of whether classical conditioning will take place: 1 The probability of classical conditioning occurring increases with the number of pairings of the unconditioned and the conditioned stimulus; 2 The probability of conditioning taking place decreases with increases in the time between presentation of the unconditioned and the conditioned stimulus; and 3 The probability of conditioning a response increases with the intensity of the unconditioned response. In operant conditioning, an action occurs that is followed by some outcome.

If the outcome is positive, then the action is likely to be repeated. If the outcome is punishing, the action that led to it will become less likely to be repeated. Thus, through both reinforcement and punishment, new behaviors are learned and others are extinguished. Several factors affect whether and how a behavior is operantly conditioned: 1 The effectiveness of the reinforcement or punishment to change behavior decreases as the amount of time between the behavior and consequence increases; 2 The effectiveness of the reinforcement or punishment to change behavior increases with the intensity of the reinforcer or punisher; and 3 Behavior does not have to be reinforced or punished each time it occurs in order for that behavior to be conditioned.

Humans can benefit from the experiences of others in order to learn behaviors and their consequences. Such learning is called observational learning. Four processes that influence observational learning have been identified: 1 Attention. Observational learning will not occur unless the person is paying reasonably close attention to the person or people performing the behavior; 2 Memory.

Observational learning will not occur unless the person can remember the actions and consequences at a later time; 3 Ability to Reproduce the Action. Observational learning will not occur if the person cannot reproduce the action; and 4 Motivation. Observational learning will not occur unless the person has some reason for performing the behavior. A prominent feature of human cognition is our ability to draw conclusions based upon the things that we have learned.

The process by which people draw conclusions from their knowledge of the world is called reasoning. When people reason, they are generating a belief i. Thus reasoning is intimately related to most other cognitive abilities including learning, moral development, verbal ability, memory, attitude formation, and problem solving.

Many traffic safety messages and programs use logic to both teach and convince drivers to drive safely. Further, much of what people learn about the driving task and driving situations is based upon reasoning processes. Therefore, a thorough understanding of how reasoning develops and the problems people have with reasoning is necessary for the development of effective traffic safety messages.

Another common type of reasoning involves people drawing conclusions based upon contingency relationships usually described in if-then premises, called conditional reasoning. Conditional reasoning ability improves with age. However, even at older ages, the ability is quite poor overall. As in class-inclusion reasoning, people especially have difficulty when conclusions do not follow logically from the given information. Several causes for poor conditional reasoning are reviewed.

Another reasoning process in which people frequently engage is reasoning by analogy. In this type of reasoning, people draw a conclusion about something new by noting the similarities between the new item and something else for which they are already quite familiar. The ability to effectively reason by analogy improves up to at least 19 years of age with no differences between the sexes. Overall, people are relatively good at this type of reasoning. Several causes for poor analogical reasoning are reviewed.

See a Problem?

A final important reasoning process for people is hypothesis formation and testing. In this type of reasoning, a person forms a belief and then seeks information related to the belief, similar to a scientist trying to understand a phenomenon. Ability for this type of reasoning is poor for people of all ages. Several causes for poor hypothesis formation and testing are reviewed. Motivation is the set of influences that account for the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior.

Since traffic safety messages and programs are designed to change unsafe driving behaviors or enhance safe ones, understanding the reasons why these behaviors occur is necessary for constructing appropriate messages and programs. Moreover, an understanding of motivations is important because in order to change behaviors and ways of thinking, the young drivers must have a motivation for changing their behavior.

If the driver has no motivation for learning the message or participating in the traffic safety program, then learning and behavior change will generally not occur. A powerful behavioral motivator is the need for sexual fulfillment or the sex drive. While the sex drive produces clear motivational effects on behavior, its influence on driving behaviors, particularly unsafe driving behaviors, is poorly documented. However, a few studies suggest that the sex drive, at least for males, may negatively influence traffic safety. At least one focus group study with college students 18 to 22 years of age has shown that, by self report, one reason for drinking and driving is to show off in order to attract the attention of the opposite sex.

In the population of young male drivers, drinking and driving activities may be motivated, in part, by the sex drive. A large body of work has documented the fact that the arousal motive can have negative traffic safety consequences for people who need to increase their levels of arousal, those commonly called sensation seekers.

Accurate identification of sensation seekers is important both for the study of this motivation and for appropriately targeting traffic safety messages and programs. Zuckerman and his colleagues have developed a test the Sensation Seeking Scale, SSS in which behaviors related to sensation seeking are self reported. This test has been used extensively to define the demographics of sensation seeking and its relationship to unsafe driving behaviors.

Studies have also documented that scores on the SSS tend to increase with age, up until the late teens. Several studies have shown that high sensation seeking is related to drinking and driving, speeding, lack of safety belt use, and traffic violations. Risk Perception. An unavoidable component of a person's life is risk and uncertainty. Our thoughts about these risks and how we assess them have been termed risk perception. The perception of risk and uncertainty is integral to many cognitive tasks. People appraise risk when making decisions about uncertain events and situations.

When reasoning about probabilistic information and the likelihood of negative outcomes, both children and adults must think about risk. Thus, an understanding of risk perception, and how people assess risk, is essential for understanding both risky-taking behavior and developing traffic safety messages to reduce risky driving. A number of studies have investigated perceptions of traffic crash and injury risk by age.

The majority of these studies have found that young drivers tend to perceive less risk in specific crash scenarios and general driving than do older drivers, and are poorer at identifying hazards when driving. Young drivers also tend to see themselves as less likely to be in a crash than others in their own age group.

Because of the elevated crash rate of males over females, many studies of risk perception have restricted their subjects to males. However, the few studies that have investigated crash risk perception for females have shown mixed results. Some studies found that males rated crash scenarios as less risky than did females. Other studies, however, have found no sex differences in crash involvement risk perception. It is clear, however, that females, like males, tend to consider themselves less likely to be in a crash and to be better drivers than others in their peer group, although to a lesser degree than males.

The chances of a crash are judged to be greater when the subject is a passenger than when he or she is driving the vehicle, showing that perceived control of a vehicle is an important factor in the assessment of risk for younger drivers. In addition, younger drivers using safety belts tend to rate the risk of crash involvement as higher than those not using belts. This effect may be due to safety belt use sensitizing drivers to the possibility of a crash. Several factors may be involved in the misperception of risk.

One is the optimism bias. Several studies have shown that young drivers tend to think of themselves as less likely to be involved in a crash than the average driver, primarily because of the belief that their driving skills are above average. Another is the availability heuristic. Instead of relying upon well-established facts and recognizing that their experiences, short-term memory capacity, and retrieval abilities are limited, people attempt to discern how frequently something occurs by trying to recall examples.

People using the availability heuristic to assess traffic crash risk search memory and retrieve many trips that were crash free, leading even poor drivers to underestimate their risks.

Another potential source of error in risk perception is the failure of young drivers to understand the effects of cumulative risk. A final factor that has been shown to bias judgment of outcome likelihood is the desirability of the outcome. People have a tendency to judge outcomes that they want as being more likely than outcomes that they do not want. Problem Solving and Decision Making. Undoubtedly the most complex cognitive activity that humans engage in is attempting to find solutions to problems; this includes the activity of decision making.

Problem solving is an ubiquitous activity in youthful driving and traffic safety. Much of high-risk driving can be conceptualized as a problem faced by a driver. Several traffic safety programs have attempted to teach young drivers new strategies for dealing with the problems that lead to high risk driving. Understanding the way young drivers go about finding solutions to problems and making decisions and the deficiencies they have in this process is important in the development of traffic safety messages. Efficient problem solving involves developed memory and attention processes, good verbal ability, proficient reasoning, and knowledge and experience of the world.

As such, the ability to problem solve effectively develops along with these other cognitive processes. As children grow older, they adopt increasingly sophisticated strategies for solving problems. Included in the developmental changes that occur in the first 18 years or so is a tremendous increase in domain-general and domain-specific knowledge, the ability to generate several potential solutions to a problem, the ability to ignore irrelevant problem information, the ability to think about more than one dimension of the problem simultaneously, and the ability to think about relationships among events in a bidirectional way.

Social Cognition. Social cognition has to do with how people make sense of other people and themselves. The study of social cognition is the study of how people think about others and how others influence a person's thoughts. Because driving typically occurs in a social setting or involves social thinking, such as attitudes, an understanding of social cognition is important in developing messages or programs to reinforce or change people's traffic safety related behavior. This section provides a brief overview of several key elements of social cognition that have implications for the development of traffic safety messages and programs including attributions, social schemata, and scripts.

Attribution theory is concerned with how people go about assigning causes to the events they observe. It focuses on how people use information in the social environment to arrive at causal explanations for events. Thus, it is often described as the study of perceived causality, with attribution referring to the perception of inference of cause.

An important theme of attribution theory is that in making attributions, people act as naive scientists; that is, people intuitively, or in a common sense way, infer or deduct causes of events around them. A second theme is that there are several tendencies in attribution making. In general, people tend to be more likely to view two events as causally related if the events are similar to one another or if they occur near to one another in time or space, to attribute behavior to a single cause rather than multiple causes, and to attribute causes of other peoples' behaviors to internal factors while they attribute causes of their own behavior to external factors.

A third theme of attribution theory has to do with how people make inferences about others' intentions and dispositions. Social schemata are cognitive structures representing organized knowledge about objects, people, and past situations, and are helpful in organizing, making sense of, and remembering details. Researchers divide social schemata into several types including person schemata, self-schemata, role schemata, and scripts. Because the last type of social schemata, scripts, represents a person's knowledge structure for a sequence of events, it is particularly important for driving.

Many of the events in the "driving" script include traffic safety related behavior. Thus, an understanding of scripts is especially useful for the design of traffic safety messages and programs for young drivers. Scripts are structures that describe appropriate sequences of events in well-known situations. They are comprised of several sequential steps and serve to organize information about the sequence of predictable actions, locations, roles, and props that constitute events.

Scripts are learned throughout a person's lifetime, both by participation in and observation of events and are activated automatically whenever a similar event is encountered in the real world or referred to verbally. In general, the more often a script is activated, the more abstract and complex it becomes.

The more recently and the more frequently the script has been activated in the past, the greater the likelihood of activation in the future. There is evidence that scripts are not subject to much change and may in fact resist change known as the perseverance effect , even when there is information that is inconsistent with or contradicts the script.

Thus, it may be difficult for traffic safety messages and programs to effect change in a young driver's script. The perseverance effect appears to be reduced, not when people are simply told about the contradictions and requested to be unbiased, but rather, when people are asked to think carefully about how they evaluate the evidence and when people are cautioned to be aware of their biases as they interpret information. The perseverance effect may also be lessened when people are forced to counter argue their scripts; that is, to explain why their scripts might be wrong.

Attitude Formation and Change. Attitudes can be thought of as relatively stable mental positions held toward ideas, objects, or people. While there is no universally agreed upon definition of attitudes, there is widespread consensus that: 1 evaluation constitutes a central and possibly predominant aspect of attitudes, 2 attitudes are represented in memory, and 3 both behavioral antecedents and consequences of attitudes have affective, cognitive, and behavioral domains.

Because appropriate traffic safety behaviors may be influenced by attitudes towards driving and traffic safety, knowledge about how attitudes develop, endure, and change is necessary for constructing effective messages and programs. Attitudes are learned. Thus, the processes discussed in the section on learning apply generally in attitude formation. Attitudes may be formed directly through questioning, personal experience, and operant conditioning, or indirectly through classical conditioning, social learning, and observation.

Attitudes are believed to predict behavior in a complex way. A popular theory states that attitudes and cultural norms combine to determine behavioral intentions, which in turn produce a voluntary behavior. A number of studies have found that differences in the extent to which attitudes guide behavior result from differences in how easily or quickly a person can retrieve the attitude from memory.

Highly accessible attitudes have been found to be more predictive of behavior than less accessible attitudes. It has been found that people holding highly accessible attitudes toward an object are more likely than those holding less accessible attitudes to evaluate information relating to the attitude object in a biased manner, and thus to shape their behavior in a direction consistent with their attitudes. Several studies have found a relationship between self-monitoring and attitude-behavior consistency. High self-monitors are individuals who monitor their behavioral choices on the basis of situational information, while low self-monitors guide their choices on the basis of salient information from relevant inner states such as attitudes, feelings, and dispositions.

Other factors that have been found to mediate the relationship between attitudes and behavior include habit or past behavior, stability of attitudes over time, volitional control of behavior, and degree of direct experience with the attitude object. Attitudes not only affect behavior; they are also influenced by behavior. Two major explanations of the influence of behavior on attitudes have been advanced. The first is dissonance reduction. That is, because we have a strong need for cognitive consistency, we change our attitudes to make them more consistent with our behavior.

The second explanation of the influence of behavior on attitudes is self-perception theory, which posits that when internal states e. That is, we look to our behavior when our attitudes are not completely clear in order to figure out our attitudes. Because attitudes are learned rather than innate, they are susceptible to change through persuasion. Persuasion refers to the intentional attempt to influence or change the attitudes of other people. Thus, persuasion is a process that involves three components: communicator or source, message, and audience or target population.

Factors related to each of these components affect the chances and degree of attitude change resulting from the persuasion process. In general, communications will be more persuasive if they are perceived to come from a highly credible and respected source, the person or source states an opinion that is contrary to what would be expected, the person or source is attractive, and the person or source is seen as similar to the recipient. Messages that include appeals to fear are generally effective only when the presented threat is severe, the likelihood of it occurring is high, and the audience is able to do something to prevent or eliminate it.

The motivation level and ability of recipients influences the cues they will be most likely to attend to during the persuasion process. Verbal Ability. The term verbal ability refers to all use of language, including oral communication, oral comprehension, reading, and writing. Traffic safety messages, of course, use verbal means for conveying information. If the verbal ability of the recipient is not accounted for in the messages, then the message will not be processed and will have no chance of improving traffic safety behaviors.

Thus, an understanding of verbal ability is necessary for effective traffic safety messages and programs. Oral communication and comprehension increase with age.

Phonology, which is the way in which the sounds of language are produced, begins to develop in infancy and continues through age five or six. The understanding of word meaning also begins in infancy and continues at least through 11 years of age, when children begin to master abstract word phrasings such as metaphors. Along the same lines, size of vocabulary increases dramatically during the first five years, approximately doubling in size each year and continues at a much slower rate throughout the lifetime.

Grammar tends to appear around 1. Reading and writing abilities increase with age. Reading skills begin to develop before 1 year. Fluent reading and simple comprehension appears around 9 years of age. Reading for complex comprehension of written material is achieved between 16 and 19 years of age. Females tend to be superior to males in oral language, reading, and writing.

Moral Development. Moral development refers to the changes that occur with age and experience in how individuals deal with moral issues. A major influence on all driving behaviors, in particular high risk driving, is the moral principles or rules by which a person lives. Moral principles determine the motivation for many social behaviors, such as driving.

Traffic safety programs such as victim impact panels attempt to appeal to peoples' morality in an attempt to get them to change their high risk driving behaviors. As such, it is important to understand the acquisition of moral thinking so that appropriate programs and messages that rely on moral thinking can be produced.

The predominant approach to understanding moral development for the past 30 years builds on the social cognition work of Piaget, and is characterized by his ideas that individuals play an active role in their own development and that cognition is of central importance in social development. Piaget's early work included a preliminary examination of children's development of moral judgments, although he did not pursue these investigations. Research on moral development was expanded upon and refined by Kohlberg. Kohlberg viewed moral development as a process in which children form their own values and moral concepts out of active efforts to organize and understand social experiences.

Kohlberg proposed six stages of moral development. Stages 1 and 2 make up the preconventional level, in which rules and social expectations are conceived as being external to the self. It is primarily children who are found at this level of moral development. Stages 3 and 4 make up the conventional level, in which individuals identify with or have internalized the rules and social conventions of others, including authorities. It is primarily adolescents and adults who are found at this level. Stages 5 and 6 make up the postconventional or principled level and are characterized by the ability of individuals to separate themselves from the rules and expectations of others and think in terms of self-chosen principles.

Relatively few people attain this level of moral thinking. Kohlberg's moral stages point to, by definition, age differences in moral development. However, the relationship between age and moral development is not a simple one. Movement from stage to stage does not occur merely as individuals age, and movement through every developmental stage is not inevitable. Still, rough age patterns can be discerned.

One of the more thorough reviews of the literature found that sex differences in moral reasoning are exceedingly rare. Of studies reviewed, only eight clearly indicated significant differences favoring males and many of these were confounded by occupational level or educational status. It is concluded that the moral reasoning of males and females is more similar than different. Moral development is stimulated by the provision of role-taking opportunities and these opportunities arise from participation in school and peer life, and interaction with the political and social institutions of the larger society, as well as from family participation.

All of these types of participation converge to stimulate moral development. The more social stimulation through these role-taking opportunities , the faster the rate of moral development. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Jean Piaget devoted much of his life to studying children's cognitive development--the way in which mental processes such as thinking, reasoning, and perceiving the world evolve. Piaget's interest was in the qualitative rather than quantitative characteristics of development.

That is, he was concerned, not with how much children know, but how they come to know it. Piaget's theory has several core assumptions. Foremost among these is the idea of constructivism--that children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world. According to Piaget, children learn by doing--they not only observe and imitate the world around them, they interpret it as well. At the same time, Piaget recognized the role of experience in cognitive development, noting that the physical and social contexts in which children act help to give shape to their constructions of the world.

In Piaget's view, adaptation, and thus, intellectual or cognitive growth, comes about through the dual processes of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation involves modifying or changing new information to fit into what is already known and accommodation involves restructuring or modifying what is already known so that new information will fit in better.

Piaget and the Foundations of Knowledge: Symposium Proceedings (Jean Piaget Symposia Series)

It is the constant balancing of these two processes that leads to adaptation to the environment and underlies the process of cognitive development. Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development, each qualitatively different from one another. These stages include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage.

During each stage, distinctive styles of thinking emerge. Piaget's introduction of qualitatively different stages of thinking was in marked contrast to the prevailing view of the time that children's cognitive activity was identical to adults' cognitive activity, only less efficient. These actions are coordinated through schemata, viewed by Piaget as simple mental images or patterns of action that individuals use to organize information and interpret the things they see, hear, smell, and touch. The main trend during this overall sensorimotor period is the development of object permanence.

Important characteristics of preoperational thought are children's lack of understanding of the concept of conservation and their growing ability to overcome egocentrism. In Piaget's view, this understanding is essential for the acquisition and subsequent development of logical thought. The main characteristics of the concrete operational stage include: the ability to use operations and mentally reverse actions; attainment of conservation skills; use of logical reasoning instead of intuitive reasoning, but only in concrete circumstances; the inability to engage in abstract thought; and the capability to classify or divide things into sets or subsets and to consider their interrelations.

There is evidence that some presumably normal people never attain formal operations. The empirical support for Piaget's cognitive stages implies, by definition, that there are age differences in cognitive development. At the same time, Piaget, himself, made it clear that the ages associated with different stages are always average and approximate. Roughly, the sensorimotor stage extends from birth to age 1. The effects of sex on cognitive development have not been widely studied. Thus, there is little support for sex differences in Piaget's theory.

There have been a number of studies exploring whether children can be trained to display advanced cognitive skills. Based on several reviews of the conservation literature, it was concluded that conservation can apparently be taught, although even highly individualized training is only successful about half the time. Studies focusing on children's attainment of formal operational thinking have also shown that certain cognitive skills can be taught through training. Introduction Table of Contents. Despite the fact that motor vehicle death rates have declined significantly since , motor vehicle crashes continue to be the major cause of death and serious disability for adolescents and young adults.

On a per population basis, drivers under age 25 in the United States U. Teenage drivers have by far the highest fatal crash involvement rate of any age group based on number of licensed drivers Motor vehicle injury rates also show that teenagers continue to have vastly higher rates than the population in general. Risky-driving behaviors may contribute heavily to the high crash and injury rates for drivers under the age of 25 years. For example, drinking and driving is a major factor in young driver fatal crashes. In spite of the fact that the proportion of fatally injured young drivers to years of age with blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.

A study by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute UMTRI found that Michigan drivers under the age of 21 accounted for 14 percent of drunk driving convictions when this same age group makes up only 8 percent of the licensed driving population. There is also evidence that young people, more frequently than others, speed e. These facts underscore the need for effective traffic safety programs and messages designed specifically for adolescents and young adults.

In an effort to reduce the crash propensity and resulting injuries of young drivers, NHTSA has begun a program of research designed to better understand the factors related to the high crash rate, in particular, risk taking, for drivers under 25 years of age see, e. A special focus of this program is to develop a conceptual framework for adolescent risk-taking behaviors that can assist in the development of measures, such as public information and education programs, to increase safe driving behaviors.

NHTSA recognizes that a comprehensive framework for understanding risk- taking behaviors must include not only external factors such as social interactions or family life, but also internal factors such as the information processing capabilities and strategies of youth. As shown in this figure, internal and external factors mutually influence each other and can collectively give rise to risky-taking behaviors.

  • HOME-WRECKER How to be The Other Woman?
  • Gossip Girl 8: Nothing Can Keep Us Together.
  • Webb Pages: The Riddle Of The Cherub Blade;
  • Development Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? - CRC Press Book.

The focus of the project reported here is limited to gaining a better understanding of the internal factors. An additional focus of the project is to use the synthesized information to generate a set of guidelines for the development of effective traffic safety messages and programs for young people. The guidelines are currently being developed. Figure 1: A conceptual framework for understanding risk-taking behavior.

The internal factors are the focus of this literature review. As a matter of everyday living, we engage in activities and are exposed to situations that have some element of risk. Risk is particularly prevalent in motor vehicle travel and is influenced by a multitude of factors including the decisions that people make about how they drive, who they drive with, under what conditions they drive, and why they are driving.

For example, in a survey of high school students, Summala found that about 60 percent of male students and 33 percent of female students reported that they at least occasionally engaged in high risk driving for fun. Despite the prevalence of risk, and the abundance of research on risk and risk taking, there is disagreement about what constitutes risk and risky-taking behaviors e. The large literature on young driver risk taking has been extensively reviewed and will not be reviewed here see, e.

However, as a way to define terms and to conceptualize risk taking driving behaviors from a cognitive perspective for this project, we present a cognitive model of risky-driving behaviors Figure 2 that includes areas where traffic safety messages and programs interventions might be applied to increase the likelihood of safe driving. Figure 2. A decision making model of risky-driving behavior, showing where traffic safety messages and programs interventions might be applied to increase the likelihood of safe driving.

Thus, the model presented here conceptualizes risky and safe driving behaviors as the outcome of a decision making process in which risky driving may be chosen over behaviors that are less risky because the risky driving affords the person greater perceived benefit.

Development Learning: Conflict Or Congruence? - CRC Press Book

It is important to note that the decision process is not characterized by an intensive review of information and courses of action. The process may happen quite rapidly and the person may consider only partial information when making a decision. Further, the driver may not be aware of the decision process, either because it occurs rapidly or because the process is nonconscious.

If at least two courses of action are considered, then the person chooses which action to take. The model applies only to a single decision made at a certain time. During the course of an automobile trip, the driver may make hundreds of decisions, some of which lead to risky-driving behaviors and some of which do not. The model is divided into two parts: subjective and objective. The subjective component of the model, shown enclosed by a dashed line, represents the cognitive factors involved in the decision making process, including the driver's memories, attentional capacities, perceptions of risk, attitudes, motivations, moral influences, and learning, reasoning, and problem solving abilities.

The objective component, shown enclosed by a dotted line, constitutes the driving behaviors; that is, those actions that we observe on the road. For this model, we define all driving behaviors as either safe or risky. Risky-driving behaviors are those actions that increase the objective likelihood of a crash or the severity of injury should a crash occur e.

As such, a driver may not consider his or her action to be a risky one even though it increases his or her chances of being in a crash or becoming severely injured in a crash. This definition of risky-driving behavior also assumes a baseline from which to assess the increase in risk or crash severity. This baseline is set by societal standards. In the case of speeding, for example, the baseline may be the speed limit, "the speed of traffic flow," or the speed that is safe for the current conditions. When a driver approaches a situation in which an action may be required, for example a young driver approaching a signalized intersection where the light has changed from green to yellow, the model proposes that an analysis of possible courses of action COAs is conducted.

If the driver only knows about, or is only able to produce, a single possible action, then that action is performed. This outcome is represented by the arrow that exits the courses-of-action box only 1 COA and terminates at the objective driving behavior part of the model dotted line. If only one action is possible, then no decision is made, the behavior could be either risky or safe, and the driver might or might not perceive the risks in taking the action. In the example of the young driver, he or she may either always brake when the light changes to yellow, or he or she may always continue through the intersection, regardless of all other considerations.

Some researchers have suggested that many driving behaviors, in particular those related to risky driving, frequently are based on only one course of action e. In driving, however, there is nearly always more than one objective possible course of action, regardless of how unpleasant some of the other actions might be e. If there is more than one perceived course of action, then the model supposes that the driver uses a decision process to choose a single course of action from the set of possible actions.

This set of actions may be exhaustive or may only contain two alternatives. For example, when approaching an intersection where the light has changed from green to yellow, some possible courses of action are to continue at the same speed through the intersection, accelerate through the intersection, or brake and stop before the intersection.

The driver may consider all three or may only consider a subset of the courses of action. As proposed by Yates and Stone a , the driver evaluates each course of action by determining a subjective worth for each action. The choice of course of action is based on some decision rule that takes into account the subjective worth for each possible course of action. The subjective worth is a complex combination of perceived risk and other considerations 1.

In the case of driving, the perceived risk of a certain course of action is a combination of the perceived probability of getting in a crash and its perceived severity, and the perceived probability of getting a citation and its perceived severity. The driver may perceive no risk of being in a crash or getting a citation, in which case the perceived risk for that course of action would not be a feature in the determination of that course of action's worth.

The other considerations are features of the course of action that either result in perceived costs or in perceived benefits. A list of example considerations, derived from the risk taxonomy of Jacoby and Kaplan , is included in Figure 2. For example, within a certain course of action there may be a time savings benefit, a financial cost, a social benefit, and a small physical cost, in addition to the perceived risk assigned to the action. The considerations that are included in the decision making process, their likelihood of occurring, and their magnitudes are all subjectively determined for that course of action at that time.

Thus, for example, a young driver may heavily weight the perceived social benefits of running a red light e. The fact that nonrisk considerations might be perceived as highly beneficial for a risky-driving behavior means that high risk courses of action could be assigned a high subjective worth. Once a course of action has been decided upon, it is performed.

For the explanatory purposes of the model, the selected course of action has a perceived risk associated with it that is either zero or above zero. If the perceived risk is above zero, that is, the driver thinks that there is at least some chance of a crash or a citation from law enforcement, then the resulting behavior itself can still be either risky or safe, depending upon the socially-defined baseline for that driving situation. Those who engage in a risky-driving behavior, perceive a risk for that behavior, and have more than one perceived course of action, are defined as risk taking.

Thus, the young driver who is approaching an intersection in which the light is yellow and decides to accelerate through the intersection, even though he knows he has other options, is engaging in risk taking if he knows he could get in a crash or receive a traffic citation from law enforcement. By the same argument, the driver who accelerates through the intersection because he is heavily weighting a time savings benefit i. On the other hand, if the perceived risk for that course of action is zero i. If the action is considered by society to be a risky-driving behavior, the behavior is perceived by the driver as risk free, and there is more than one perceived course of action, then we define that person's behavior in this situation as risk ignorant.

For example, the young driver approaching the intersection may wrongly think that other drivers at the intersection will watch out for him i. Given this lack of perceived risk, the young driver may continue into the intersection simply because he does not want to wait.

A driver who has selected a course of action in which there is no perceived risk can also engage in safe driving behaviors the two arrows terminating in the safe driving behavior box of the model shown in Figure 2 ; the person may still drive safely simply because he believes that people should follow traffic laws. The goal of traffic safety researchers should be to get drivers, in particular young drivers, to follow the decision making pathway to safe driving behaviors represented by the thick arrows in Figure 2.

Those drivers who engage in safe driving by this pathway in the model are the ones who recognize the risks associated with possible driving behaviors and choose the behavior that is safe. Those drivers arriving at safe driving by the other pathway do not adequately perceive the risks of driving and may end up driving in a risky manner in other situations. Also shown in the model are points where traffic safety messages and programs interventions can be applied.

One potential intervention point is when drivers first determine the courses of action available to them. Drivers can be made more aware of the many courses of action available to them when they are driving, or be helped to improve their ability to actually perform other actions as may be the case in learning to drive. Another potentially fruitful focus for interventions is the basic decision making process. As has been recently tried by NHTSA, it may be possible to train young drivers to make better driving decisions e. Another point of intervention is at the risk perception level.

Messages and programs to change perceptions of traffic violation enforcement risk or of crash risk, might lead to less risky courses of action being chosen by young drivers. Focusing on other considerations evaluated in determining the worth of an action is another avenue for interventions. Programs and messages could attempt to get young drivers to consider information that they do not already use or to more appropriately weight the significance of the information that they do use.

While the model is specific to a single decision at a certain time, it can help us to understand why certain people may be prone to engage frequently in risky-driving behaviors and in other risky or problem behaviors e. The model proposes that a risky behavior is the outcome of a decision process, and that persons engage in that behavior because of the benefits or absence of losses that they get from the action.

It is reasonable to assume that the subjective aspects of the process are similar in other driving situations i. If so, then we would predict that in driving situations involving risk, similar outcomes would occur because similar information processing is occurring. As many researchers have shown e.

Therefore, it is reasonable to think that an individual would apply the same decision making processes and would have similar influences on this process to most situations in which high risk behavior is undertaken. More to the point of the current project, the model can also help us to understand why risky-driving behaviors seem to decline with age. As discussed in this literature review on cognitive development, several cognitive skills and abilities develop with age. Cognitive changes in the speed of information processing, memory capacity, attention, decision making ability, and general knowledge of the world, could all positively influence the decision making process leading to safe driving.

It is important to remember that this literature review only covers the internal factors see Figure 1. A thorough understanding of risky-driving behaviors among young drivers also requires a review of external factors, such as peer influences, family, and school. These factors are related to the decision making process e. The literature review is divided into 12 sections. The review focuses primarily on cognitive development from about 10 to 24 years of age. In addition, if literature reporting research on sex differences 2 was found, then it was included where applicable.

While the topics are presented as chapters in this review, there is significant overlap among topics. The first section is about memory ; that is, the processes that allow a person to retain knowledge over time. This section discusses the various types of memory and their development. Traffic safety messages, or the effects of programs that are not remembered or not recalled when necessary, will have little positive influence on safe driving behaviors. The second section, attention , discusses the factors related to the development of how people focus cognitive resources on perceptual or mental tasks, including selective, divided, and sustained attention.

A traffic safety message or program that is not attended to may be misperceived or missed completely, reducing or eliminating any chance for message or program effectiveness. The third section, learning , discusses three processes by which people acquire information: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. Because many traffic safety messages and programs have a learning component, an understanding of how people learn is paramount for development of effective messages and programs.

The fourth section, reasoning , discusses several ways in which people draw conclusions from their knowledge of the world and how these processes develop with age. Because many traffic safety messages and programs use logical arguments to influence safe driving behaviors, it is important to understand how reasoning processes operate and develop in humans.

The fifth section of the literature review, motivation , examines the factors that initiate and influence the intensity of behaviors. Because these factors are numerous, the review discusses only two motivations that seem to influence risky-driving behaviors in young drivers: sex and the need for stimulation sensation seeking. It is important to understand and consider young driver motivation when developing traffic safety messages and programs because risky driving, like other behaviors, is motivated by something and one needs to provide a motivation for following the recommendations in a traffic safety message or program.

Also included in the review, in the sixth section, is a discussion of the development of risk perception and factors that contribute to the misperception of risk. As we have already mentioned, risk perception is an integral part of the decision making process that leads to risky-driving behaviors and has the potential to be influenced by traffic safety messages and programs.

The seventh section discusses the development of problem solving and decision making in a general way. While influenced by all other cognitive factors and their age-related limitations, general deficits of problem solving and decision making ability are discussed. Again, an understanding of these processes is integral to understanding risky-driving behaviors. Also covered in this review are some of the social factors that influence how people think, known as social cognition.

The ninth section focuses on attitude formation and change. Because appropriate traffic safety behaviors may be influenced by attitudes towards driving and traffic safety, knowledge about how attitudes develop, endure, and change is necessary for constructing effective massages and programs. The tenth section examines briefly the development of verbal ability , that is, all use of language.

Traffic safety messages and programs use verbal means to convey information. If the verbal ability of the recipient is not accounted for, then message or program effectiveness may be diminished. Because many traffic safety messages and programs deal with moral issues in driving, the eleventh section is a review of moral development. This section examines a theory of moral development and many factors that influence moral thinking. Finally, because of the influence of his ideas on the field of cognitive development, we conclude our review with a section on Piaget's theory of cognitive development.

Memory Table of Contents. Introduction In a very real sense, our memories determine who we are, what we do, and what we think. Whenever we maintain information over time, we are using our memories. Memory is therefore a critical feature of all cognitive processes.

It is, therefore, critical for readers interested in constructing traffic safety messages to understand how human memory develops and functions. While there are many models of human memory, it is useful to conceptualize memory as composed of three stages e. This model of memory, known as the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, has been challenged by some researchers who cite experiments that suggest that the distinctions between these memory stages are somewhat unclear e. Despite this lack of agreement, we use the Atkinson-Shiffrin model as an efficient organizational framework for describing the empirical data about memory development and function.

Short-term memory STM has been described as working memory Klatzky, because it is the type of memory used for ongoing cognitive activities. It has also been characterized as the conscious part of memory where activities such as decision making, reasoning, symbol manipulation, and problem solving take place Siegler, Klatzky provides a useful analogy for STM:. All her materials are neatly organized on shelves around the walls of the room. Those materials that she is immediately working with--tools, boards When the bench gets too messy, she may stack material in orderly piles, so that more can be fit onto the bench.

In this analogy, the materials are bits of information and the materials stacked neatly on shelves are analogous to information in long-term memory to be discussed next. The analogy is useful because it describes many empirical properties of STM, such as a limited capacity and the ability to use organizational strategies to increase the capacity.

He learned each list by reading aloud to himself the list and then attempting to recall it in the order it was read. If he made a mistake, he would reread the list and again he would attempt to recall the list. This procedure continued until he could recall the entire list in the correct order. He tallied the number of times he had to reread the list. Ebbinghaus discovered that if the list contained seven nonsense syllables or less, he could recall the list perfectly after only one reading.

This finding suggested that the capacity of STM was seven items. Subsequent research on STM capacity with adults confirmed Ebbinghaus' finding and showed that the capacity was the same for many other nonrelated items, such as digits or letters e. However, if the digits formed familiar numbers or the letters formed familiar words, then many more digits or letters than seven could be recalled perfectly after a single reading. For example, suppose that the following list of 12 digits were read to you: 1, 8, 1, 2, 1, 7, 7, 6, 1, 9, 4, 2. Since there are 12 items in the list, you would not be able to recall them in order after a single reading--the number of digits exceeds STM capacity.

However, if you were to notice that the digits formed three important years in American history, , , and , you would easily be able to recall the list after one reading. As in the workbench analogy, if you can stack up information in organized piles, then more can fit on the workbench. Thus, provided information can be chunked, STM can hold a large amount of information. The durability of information in STM has also been measured.

Consider what strategy you might employ to remember a telephone number said aloud.